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Use your gut instinctsOne of the best ways to improve your speaking is to learn from good speeches.

Over the years I’ve developed my own down-and-dirty methodology for evaluating speeches. There are more sophisticated ways to assess a speech’s merits, mind you. But this one works for me. It may work for you.

One caveat: I’m talking about how to analyze a speech for your own edification, not how to give someone else feedback about their speaking.

Step One: Trust Your Gut Instincts

Pay attention to your feelings during and immediately following a speech.

I’m talking about a simple appraisal of your visceral response that allows for only one of three possibilities:

  1. Love it!
  2. Hate it!
  3. Totally indifferent.

Or, put more simply, yay, nay, or bleh.

Don’t universalize your reactions. I’ve loved speeches that other people have hated. And people have raved about speeches that have left me cold. The same is probably true for you.

Be aware of your general emotional state. Sometimes our feelings have nothing to do with the speech itself. We may be in a foul mood to begin with—it happens—or preoccupied, depressed, or disengaged. In those cases, don’t blame the speaker.

Simply notice and accept your emotional reaction. Trust your feelings, your intuition, to provide useful information.

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When giving a speech, business leaders today tend to choose one of two options: speaking from a written speech (a script) or from  a list of talking points.

The Plusses and Minuses of Speaking from a Written Speech or Script

A script for a speech is a written text: a word-for-word document that speakers read to their audiences.

On the plus side a script is carefully constructed. It has a beginning, middle, and end; a logical and persuasive flow; and the right balance of information, ideas, explanations, illustrations, and stories.

A script uses rhetorical devices—phrases and sentences that are both memorable and moving—to engage the audience’s hearts and minds.

And a written speech makes the speaker sound smart, articulate, leaderly. (Is leaderly even a word?)

On the minus side, writing a speech is time-consuming. It’s expensive, if you don’t write it yourself. And it’s difficult to get right. (Not many people have the training or experience needed to write one).

Also, few speakers have the ability to read a script without sounding stiff and overly formal.

The Plusses and Minuses of Speaking from Talking Points

Talking points are a list of the most important information and ideas—summarized in a phrase or short sentence—concerning the topic of the speech.

The biggest plus of talking points is efficiency. It takes several hours, sometimes many days, to write a speech. You can throw together a list of talking points in the morning and be ready to speak by lunchtime.

And when you speak from talking points, you sound, well, unscripted. Given todays political and cultural climate, audiences think they’re hearing the real you.

The main minus of relying on talking points is that, well, you should unscripted. Unless you’re an accomplished, articulate speaker, your speeches will sound like an ordinary, everyday conversation: rambling, unfocused, and lacking any clear direction.

What’s the alternative to speaking from a script or from talking points?

What if you don’t have the time to put into writing a speech but you want something more focused and purposeful than talking points?

I recommend using what I call “soft scripting.”

A soft script is hybrid. It has elements of a fully written script, but it looks like a list of talking points.

A soft script is a very detailed outline—maybe two pages long—with a very clear structure:

  • an introduction that captures people’s interest and gives an overview of what’s to come;
  • three to five main points that explain, substantiate, and illustrate the speech’s main idea; and
  • a conclusion that issues a call to and an impetus for action.

It captures in writing carefully crafted phrases and sentences that are meant to be spoken word for word.

A soft script takes more time to create than a list of talking points, but less time to write than a script. It makes speakers sound smart and spontaneous. And it presents a clear and persuasive argument without wasting time or an audience’s attention.

Can speeches provoke violence? In a word: yes.

The goal of a speech is to move people to action.

A speech may educate and inform, entertain and amuse audiences. But it does so as a means to an end. And that end is action.

The action inspired by a speech may be noble and ennobling.

Speeches have inspired people and nations to work on behalf of the abolition of slavery, women’s equality, the rights of labor, civil rights, resistance to tyranny, environmental protection, the peaceful resolution of disputes.

But the action inspired by a speech may be — and often has been — violent.

Speeches have roused audiences — en masse or as individuals — to riot, to rampage, to lynch, to bomb, to burn, to assault.

To provoke violence — either immediate and specific violence, or unspecified violence — a speech has to do three things:

  1. Demonize “Them”
    Violent-provoking speeches always identify an enemy: the cause of our suffering, the source of all that is wrong with this world. “They” are different from us: of a different race or ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation. They are threatening our way of life, our jobs, our rights and prerogatives.
  2. Rouse Passion
    Violent-provoking speeches justify and inflame an audience’s anger, rage, and resentment. Reason and logic incline people to think more than to act; they are to be avoided. Passion moves people to action. And the more intense the passion, the greater the potential for violence.
  3. Justify Violence
    Violent-provoking speeches make violence reasonable and righteous. “They” have attacked us and all that we hold dear. We are the victims. We have the right — even the obligation — to fight back.

To deny that speeches can provoke violence, you have to deny the evidence of history, all the times that speeches have directly and indirectly roused audiences to violence.

And to deny that speeches can provoke violence, you have to deny that they can set people to work for a worthy cause.

On a related but separate issue, you might want to read Is Violent Speech a Right?

How Leaders SpeakLeaders give speeches all the time. They speak to promote their organization’s vision and mission. They speak when the stakes are high, in times of crisis and great opportunity.

Public speaking skills and leadership skills go hand in hand.

See also Leadership Speeches.

Tips for Leaders Who Want to Improve their Public Speaking

1. Take a Stand

Take a stand literally. Plant your feet squarely and solidly, balancing your weight evenly on both feet. Move with a purpose, not simply to pace. And take a stand figuratively. Don’t be neutral or disinterested. Stake out a position and make your best, your strongest case for it.

2. Keep it Short, Simple, and Strong

Brevity in a speech is always a good thing. It’ll help you hold your audience’s attention, and it will force you to focus on what matters most, eliminating all fluff. Simple is good, too, because it aids clarity and understanding. And strength is a sign of confidence and inspires confidence.

3. Be Big

Who you are — your character, reputation, values, vision — shapes how the audience hears and interprets what you say. So don’t hide off to the side of the stage in semi-darkness. Don’t cede center stage to a PowerPoint presentation. Demand people’s attention. Be yourself — your best self. And make your gestures bigger than usual.

4. Pause

One of the best ways to gain people’s attention while giving a speech is, paradoxically, to be silent. As you begin, take your place on the stage. Arrange the microphone and your notes, if you’re using them. Look up. Look people in the eye. And take a breath. Pause. When people settle down and return your eye contact, then and only then begin speaking. Frame your most important points with a brief pause.

5. Tell a Story

Avoid those cutesy teaching stories you find in books or on the Internet, stories that everyone has heard, stories that have an obvious moral. Tell, instead, a story from your own life, or a story about someone you know and admire. If it’s not meaningful and fresh to you, it won’t touch your audience.

See The Importance of Stories in a Speech.

What tips would you add about public speaking skills for leaders?

 

What Is a Demagogue?

Christopher Witt —  November 24, 2015 — Leave a comment

What is a demagogue?In ancient Greece a demagogue was a leader who championed the rights of the common people.

Today we think of a demagogue as a speaker who whips up people’s fears and anger, plays to their prejudices, and makes false claims and promises.

(Unfortunately, we have too many examples of demagogues both here in the U.S. and in Europe.)

In times of crisis and turmoil demagogues play an important, although not necessarily salutary, role.

  1. Demagogues define “us,” our identity, values, and basic beliefs.

They affirm who and what “we” are, primarily by distinguishing us from “them.” Demagogues do not fault us in any way, except perhaps for doubting ourselves and our unique destiny. We are the good people, common folk who are just trying to live our lives decently and in peace. But we and our way of life are under attack.

  1. Demagogues identify “them,” the cause of all our troubles.

“They” are, first of all, not us. They don’t look like us. They don’t act like us. They don’t believe like us. They are women; ethnic, racial, or religious minorities; immigrants; and gays. They say they want equality, but what they really want is what we have—our rights, prerogatives, and privileged status—and they are taking them from us. They are evil.

  1. Demagogues personify and praise strength.

We are, they say, at war. It may be a war of ideas and values or an armed conflict. But it a war nonetheless. They started it, but we will finish it, using any means necessary. Because of our overwhelming strength and the rightness of our cause, we will be victorious as long as we remain resolute. Weakness, hesitation, uncertainty on our part play into their hands, the hands of the enemy. What we need now more than ever is a strong leader. Better to be strong and wrong than weak and right.

  1. Demagogues advocate violence.

    Their speeches are verbally violent: laced with insults and put-downs, ethnic and racial slurs, and demeaning stereotypes. They spew lies and half-truths. They shout down opponents. They assure us that it fitting and proper—sometimes even sanctioned by God—to attack those who threaten us and our way of life.
  2. Demagogues pander to their audiences.

Demagogues look and sound strong. They get credit for saying what others are too timid or “politically correct” to say. But their message lacks substance. It offers no new insights, nothing that can stand up to logic or reason. They merely voice the worst fears, the sense of loss, and the rage felt by a certain segment of society. They repeat, reinforce, and amplify people’s established prejudices. They tell their audiences only what they want to hear.

We ignore demagogues at our own peril. Although they ultimately flame out, they can cause a great deal of damage before doing so.

And we would be wise to pay attention to their followers, to listen to their sense of alienation and loss and rage. It would be too easy, otherwise, to make them the new “them,” the cause of all society’s ills.

When hiring an executive speech coachAn executive speech coach can benefit leaders in business, education, and nonprofits — CEOs and presidents, executive directors, senior executives, and business owners.

After all, leaders speak all the time, internally and externally. And when they speak, a lot is at stake: their own reputations and their organization’s success.

Leaders can’t settle for being a good enough speaker. They have to be exceptional speakers if they want to earn an audience’s attention and respect, influence how people think and feel, and change how they act.

What Does an Executive Speech Coach Do?

The job of an executive speech coach is to show leaders how to build on the skills they’ve already developed in order to become exceptional speakers:

  • To command an audience’s attention without being egotistical.
  • To create a clear and compelling message.
  • To tell stories that engage an audience’s emotions and imaginations.
  • To win an audience’s trust and respect.
  • To speak off the cuff, when necessary.

Questions to Ask a Prospective Executive Speech Coach

Most of the time, the question isn’t whether you can benefit from working with an executive speech coach. The question is how do you determine which speech coach is right for you.

  1. What’s their experience?
    What’s their experience as a speaker or presenter?
    I don’t know how a coach can help people develop a skill they haven’t first mastered. So you should look for an executive speech coach who has spoken frequently and to a variety of audiences, someone who knows what it’s like to interact with a live audience, someone who has learned from personal experience, not just from books, what works and what doesn’t work.
    What’s their experience as an executive speech coach?
    Just because someone has mastered a skill — and public speaking is a skill — doesn’t mean they’re able to help others perfect that skill. So you should look for someone who has training and experience as a coach, someone who has worked successfully with a number of clients in roles and fields similar to yours.
  2. What’s their theoretical understanding of speeches?
    You’re probably not interested in an academic discourse on the nature and purpose of public speaking. But you should ask about their understanding of what a speech is, what it can and cannot accomplish, what its most important elements are. You need to know whether you can trust this person’s professionalism and expertise.
  3. How are they different from other executive speech coaches?
    Experienced, highly competent executive speech coaches typically have credentials, certifications, and advanced degrees, impressive client lists, publications, and testimonials. They may be good, even exceptional at what they do, but how can you know if they’re right for you.
    I suggest you look for what makes them different from other executive speech coaches. Many coaches have an acting background, so they focus on helping clients develop their delivery skills. One coach I know is experienced in improvisation, so — you guessed it — he helps his clients incorporate aspects of improv into their speaking. I focus primarily on helping my clients 1) think strategically about their overall approach to speaking and 2) develop a powerful, evocative, results-oriented message.

Of course, you’ll want to ask about the coach’s client list and testimonials, about how the two of you would work together, about confidentiality and fees.

Here’s what it boils down to when hiring an executive speech coach: Do you like, trust, and respect the person on a personal and professional basis?

Have you worked with an executive speech coach? What was your experience?

Here’s more information about my experience and approach as an executive speech coach.

 

Teleprompter, Speech, ScriptDonald Trump has nothing but contempt for politicians who use a teleprompter when making a speech.

He gives every appearance of standing in front of an audience and simply saying whatever comes to his mind. He extemporizes. He does not give prepared speeches.

Trump seems to think that using a teleprompter and, by extension, speaking from a prepared script somehow makes a speaker inauthentic. Insincere. Less authoritative.

Is that the case?

Does relying on a script — one that you’ve written or had written for you — make you a bad speaker? Does it lessen your credibility? Does it dilute your message?

Of course not. On the contrary, preparing a script and speaking from it is the best way to improve your speaking.

Giving a speech is like undertaking any project. You wouldn’t simply show up unprepared and wing it. Not if a lot was at stake. Not if you wanted to succeed.

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Donald TrumpDonald Trump’s speeches seem unscripted. When he speaks, it looks and sounds as if he simply opens his mouth and lets his uncensored thoughts and feelings pour forth.

He doesn’t parrot someone else’s words. He doesn’t follow a script. He doesn’t depend on a teleprompter.

As a result, many people consider him spontaneous, authentic, trustworthy.

I think Trump learned how to speak the way he does from hosting 14 seasons of The Apprentice, a reality TV show. And I think we can learn something from him.

Reality TV seems real. But it isn’t. It doesn’t show life as it is.

Reality TV…

  • selects compelling participants
  • places them in artificial situations
  • fabricates and escalates conflict
  • scripts an overarching narrative
  • coaches participants’ reactions and dialogue
  • sifts through hundreds of hours of boring video to edit together a final show

In the same way, Donald Trump’s speeches seem unscripted, but they’re not.

Trump’s speeches are soft-scripted. Which isn’t a bad thing. Which is something you might consider emulating.

Speechwriting Tips from Donald Trump

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Rhetoric + RageI’m both fascinated and appalled by Donald Trump’s popularity in the political arena these days.

As a student and practitioner of public speaking, I think his popularity is rooted in his skillful appeal to people’s sense of rage.

He has perfected “the rhetoric of rage.”

What is Rhetoric?

Rhetoric is the artful use of words to persuade.

The goal of rhetoric is not to educate or inform, not to entertain or amuse, not to convince or convert.

The goal of rhetoric is to move people to take action.

To induce people to act, you may have to educate, inform, entertain, amuse, convince, and/or convert them. But the goal of rhetoric is always action, action, action.

Logic and reason don’t move people to act. Emotions do.

What is Rage?

Rage is anger that is so intense it threatens to explode into violent action.

We may seethe with anger, but rage makes us want to lash out at someone.

Rage, like anger, is a reaction to the perception that someone has deprived us of something we value.

There are, therefore, three elements of rage:

  1. Loss: We no longer have something of value that we once possessed or think we had a right to.
  2. Deprivation: We don’t have it, because it was taken from us.
  3. Adversary: “They” took it from us.

By itself the sense of loss does not fuel rage. The appropriate response to loss is grief.

At the root of rage (and of anger) is a sense of injustice. “It’s not right.”

Whereas anger is the impetus to make things right, to restore justice, rage seeks revenge.

Rage isn’t satisfied with reclaiming what was lost. It wants to punish those who stole it in the first place.

Rage requires an adversary, an enemy, a villain, a them. (They are specific people or a specific class of people, not impersonal forces or events.)

The Rhetoric of Rage

Rhetoric and rage are made for each other.

Rhetoric wants to move people to act. Rage makes people want to act.

To use the rhetoric of rage:

1. Remind people of what they’ve lost.

Have they lost their social status and the rights and privileges due to them? Have they lost their jobs or financial security? Have they lost the right to impose their beliefs and values on others? Have they lost their confidence in government, social institutions, and the very future?

Don’t confuse them with facts or logic. They may not have possessed in the first place what they think they’ve lost. Or they may not have had the right to it. That’s not the issue. What matters is that they think – or more importantly – they feel that they’ve lost it.

2. Frame that loss as deprivation.

Losing something of value makes people sad and powerless, which they don’t like. So tell them it was taken from them. It’s not their fault they lost something valuable: it’s someone else’s fault.

3. Identify the adversary.

This is easy. Given the right mind-set, there’s always someone to blame: immigrants, gays, women, terrorists, criminals, the one-percenters.

Make it personal. “We’re losing the cultural war” isn’t as powerful as “Gays are destroying the very definition of marriage.” “We [whites] are becoming the minority” doesn’t move people as much as “Mexicans are streaming across our borders, bringing drugs with them, and taking our jobs.”

What do you think? Am I on to something? What would you add, subtract, or refute?

A speech can never be better than the idea it promotes.

You can dress up a stupid, lame, or vile idea in spiffy visual aids. You can present it with verbal and nonverbal pyrotechnics. And as a result, you may wow your audience.

But wowing an audience doesn’t mean a speech is any good.

The most captivating speaker of the 20th century was undoubtedly Adolph Hitler. He mesmerized audiences, and yet look at what his ideas led to.

Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will showcases one of Hitler’s speeches and shows its effect on the audience. It’s a remarkable – and chilling – piece of propaganda.

The proof of a speech’s merit is in the idea it implants in the audience’s hearts and minds and in the idea’s power to bring about some good.

A speech has to be built around one – and only one – idea. But that idea has to be big in scope or in impact, and big in the moral imagination.

Some ideas are big in scope. They cover a lot of intellectual ground. They insinuate themselves into different fields, altering or integrating seemingly diverse concepts. They change the way people think. Consider Darwin’s theory of evolution.

Some ideas are big in impact. They affect people’s emotions – their hopes and fears, their desires, their aspirations — so profoundly that they change the way they act. Consider the movement for women’s equality.

A speech needs one or the other – an idea big in scope or one big in impact — because a speech is meant to change the way people think and feel and act.

That idea, mind you, doesn’t have to be as big in scope or impact as the theory of evolution or the equality of women. But it can’t be trifling.

A great speech changes the way people think and feel and act…for the good.

That’s where the moral imagination comes in.

Loosely speaking, the moral imagination is the ability to distinguish right from wrong for ourselves, for other people, and for the world as a whole.

An idea that’s big in scope and impact, but that’s lacking in moral imagination, may be effective, but it won’t be good.

When you combine all three – scope, impact, and moral imagination – you get a truly, remarkably, great speech. It’s something to be aspired to.

To counter the image of Hitler giving an effective speech, here’s President Lyndon Johnson giving a great speech.

 

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